Identify the gluteus maximus muscle (Figure 13.2). To demonstrate its borders, it may be necessary to remove a great deal of overlying superficial fascia. The gluteus maximus muscle arises from the posterior part of the iliac crest, external surface of the ilium, dorsal surfaces of sacrum and coccyx, and the sacrotuberous ligament. Muscle fibers of the gluteus maximus muscle pass lateral and downward to insert onto the iliotibial tract and the gluteal tuberosity of the femur.
Above the superior border of the gluteus maximus, identify the portion of gluteus medius muscle. Only a portion of the gluteus medius muscle can be seen at this time. The remainder of the muscle will be seen when the gluteus maximus muscle is reflected.At the inferior border of the gluteus maximus muscle, identify the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. It continues distally on the superficial aspect of the hamstring muscles and gives branches to the skin on the posterior aspect of the thigh.
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