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The posterior tibial artery [probe; retractor holds the tibial nerve, tibial vein, and plantaris tendon] [two probes] passes distally on the medial side of the posterior compartment, in association with the deep muscles. Its position as it crosses the ankle is described in Step 12.Near its origin, the posterior tibial artery gives rise to the peroneal artery. It courses on the lateral side of the posterior compartment of the leg between the tibialis posterior muscle and flexor hallucis longus muscle. Although the peroneal artery travels in the posterior compartment, it supplies the muscles of the lateral compartment, the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. To supply these muscles, branches of the peroneal artery pierce the fascia, which separates the lateral and posterior compartments of the leg.
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